REALITY # 2: CAN LIFE SKIRT THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS?

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THE TAKE HOME:  IS THE UNCERTAINITY PRICIPLE EQUIVALENT TO THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS? 

I’ve written extensively about this subject and about Maxwell demons and the curious case of the linkage of Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle to the second law of thermodynamics. My belief is that all topologic insulators, especially the one buried in mitochondria, are very tiny Maxwell demons that can skirt the second law of thermodynamics by making the ledge of that larger in ways we do not observe.  This occurs because of the scale of the changes that increase this energy ledge are mush smaller than the macroscopic objects that human can process with their senses.  Recently physicists are now beginning to realize that small quantum systems do not act like a cup of hot cup of coffee or a star in space.  Two recent studies are now aligning with many of the things I teach my members.

Your mitochondria are a lot smaller than a cup of coffee and a star………just saying. HYPERLINK

The second recent study in H-theorem was written that also supports my beliefs. Hyperlink.

The second law of thermodynamics was really brought to prominence by Ludwig Boltzman in the 1870’s. Boltzmann published his celebrated kinetic equation and the H-theorem that gave man the statistical foundation of the second law of thermodynamics.

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On his grave stone in Zentralfriedhof, Vienna is carved S = k (x) log W. This simple equation describes entropy or disorder of a system. S is the randomness or entropy, W describes the various ways of arranging the atoms in the system, and k is a fixed number now known as the Boltzman constant. When you look at his equation as a biologist, it becomes apparent the arrangment of the atoms in cells is the critcal determinant of how life does what it does.

The physics of organisms are the key to the understanding biology.  This equation shows that the second law of thermodynamics that deals with heat transfers appears to always hold and be axiomatic. This is true in closed system and those at equillibrium, but it does not apply to open systems or to systems built to be far from equilibrium.  All living cells are open systems built far from equillibrium.

Sir Alfred Eddington, the famous astronomer who proved that Einstein’s theory of relativity was true , said that any theory that is found to contravene the second law of thermodynamics has no hope of being true in 1915. This belief hold until today. The problem with this idea is that life has apeared to skirt the second law of thermodynamics by physicists since the second law was penned. Physicists, without saying it aloud, have said if there is a God, the deity certainly must be a thermodynamicist.

100 years after Boltzman death, Vlatjo Vedral anaylzed Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle at the basis of quantum theory, and found that the Boltzman’s law is essentially another mathematical way of explaining the Boltzman law of thermodynamics. The “uncertainity principle” fundamentally tells us how much information can be extracted from a physical system.  This means that the uncertainity principle and the second law of thermodynamics both must link to information theory directly.

Biology is solely based upon putting these two equations to work in hydrated proteins. If one studies proteins sans the water, the results will not be equivalent.  The study of regular biochemistry in most books is based upon the subtraction of water to study the proteins in isolation.  In science today, this bio-chemical paradigm is being replaced by the new scicnce of topology.  In October of 2016, the Nobel Prize for physics was given for the science of topology.  Molecular biology is really the study of the physics of organisms and how cell organization puts quantum weirdness to work to build life.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Most people are not aware that the basis of the entire food web on earth is due to photosynthesis. Let us examine why this is so critical to get wellness right.

All food is a light story at its foundation because of the “Rubisco enzyme” at the core of photosynthesis.

The secret nature employs in planning for the future invasion of food to the Earth surface was like all projects that initially seem overwhelmingly complex complex and difficult.  Nature broke up all the steps into deft smaller tasks, trillions of them in reality in plants.  This principle of organization in nature is ubiquitous and applies at all scales of nature.  If you have any big task, and you want to get it done, just breaks it up into smaller packets or chunks.  Make sure the chunks of information and data are meaningful, implementable, and doable packets using nature’s laws and success will follow.  This idea makes time management of any task much easier when you think about it.  In the macrosciopic world we need quality assurance programs in place to make sure each step is done properly.  In the quantum world we do not need any such program because each packet/chunk is a quanta of energy.  Since the chuncks are pre-packaged and precise cells do not need to worry about the process breaking down.  Mother Nature’s laws do not falter, so organizing time for cells really is all about the clock mechanism and not the actual work done by energy at each step.  This makes it ridiculously precise and efficient.  This is likely why every gene has a molecular clock in front of it, that is ultimately controlled by one central clock that begins in our eye where light interacts with melanopsin and retinol coupling.  Why?

You only need to manage time to get the single packet/chunk done correctly when atoms are organized this way.  When you get success with one packet/chunk it is reenforced because their you build a “molecular satisifaction” or probability that completion will happen.  Recall that nature works exclusively on probabilities of things occuring.  This mechanism happens in a leaf and in our brains. The more success we have on the timing of small quanta of information in the brain the more neurochemical satisfaction occurs at the completion of each stage.  So how does “molecular satisfaction” correlate to the creation of a very complex food web using light frequencies as the quanta/packets/chunks of data?

HYPERLINK

The leaf is where chlorophyll and chloroplast are located. Chloroplast, like mitochondria were derived from bacteria in an endosymbiosis that occured in plant cells about 30-50 million years before it happened in animals cells to make the mitochondria. This is why the Rubisco protein is the basis of all life on Earth. The leaf’s chloroplast is the most remarkable technology nature has ever built. It uses topology and excitons to get the job of life done.  Sunlight lands on the surface of a leaf in quantized packets of energy we call light photons. Every second a leaf spends in bright sunlight, the leaf gains trillions of photons. The photons come in all colors or frequencies because the sun’s light varies by location altitude and time of day. For example, the AM sunrise color temperature is 1800K while the sunset is 16,000K. Both contain visible and infrra red sunlight. But the color temperature of solar light varies tremendously from sun rise to sunset. This is tied to the blue light present within the light.  For example, at my 28 latitude in winter time we have only 13% blue light in our light but in summer time it rises to 26%.  This has huge implications on the types of foods than can and cannot grow at times of the year. That light signal must be coherent via the skin in eye to register properply in the gut and mitochondria.  Color temperatures over 5000 K are called “cool colors” by indoor lighting convention, and are bluish white, while lower color temperatures (2700–3000 K) are called warm colors which are yellowish white through red.

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Many people are confused by the use of “K” or Kelvins and not the use of centigrade or Farenheit. The color temperature of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from an ideal black body, like the sun, is defined as its surface temperature in Kelvin, or alternatively in mireds, which is a micro-reciprocal degrees (Kelvin). This permits the definition of a standard by which light sources are compared by the lighting industry to natural sunlight.

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The Sun closely approximates a black-body radiator. The effective temperature, defined by the total radiative power per square unit, is about 5780 K. The color temperature of sunlight above the atmosphere is about 5900 K. This is usually the color temperature of sunlight at solar noon and not all day.  Solar variation is important to cells.

As the Sun crosses the sky, it may appear to be red, orange, yellow or white depending on its position in the sky. This varies by altitude and latitude. I believe the major variation today is now effected by population density as well.  The changing color of the Sun over the course of the day is mainly a result of scattering of light in our atmosphere and is not due to changes in black-body radiation. The blue color of the sky is caused by Rayleigh scattering of the sunlight from the atmosphere, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light. The reason is simple. Scattering of light is inversely proportional to the 4th root of the wavelength of light. Since blue light has more power than red light, it scatters most and this is why the sky is blue on Earth. Blue light also bends more than any other frequency that enters the anterior chamber of the eye, so this cause a blue light aberration. It means that blue light is focused anterior to the retina in the eye BY DESIGN.  This is why the melanopsin receptor and a large amount of retinol are in these areas of the retina.  They form the non image portion of vision known here as the “eye clock” mechanism.   This is why excessive blue light causes blurred vision acutely, and if it is chronic it will elongate the globe to cause myopia and many other disease related to thinning of the retina.

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Some early morning and evening light (golden hours) has a lower color temperature due to increased low-wavelength light scattering by the Tyndall effect. This effect is especially pronounced with the increase in small dust particles in the atmosphere after the eruptions of Mount Tambora in 1815 and Krakatoa in 1883, which gave rise to intense red sunsets around the world. This finding also gives us a clue that around the KT- event 65 million years ago, any sunlight that pentrated the atmosphere’s particle also likely gave rise to red light and a lower color temperature. This may explain why the animals who survived the KT event all had a high mitochondrial capacity.  Mitochondria favor red light chromophores or antenna’s for red light.  Cytochrome c oxidase, the Q-cycle, and the ATPase are all specialized red light antenna’s, we call chromophores,  because they have heme like proteins in their mitochondria and used hemoglobin to assimilate sunlight into their blood plasma.

When visual blur occurs it elongates the eye to cause myopia and leads to cataracts, macular degeneration, and aging increases in mitochondria because blue light destroys the central retinal pathways of melanopsin that link to melatonin. Melatonin controls all mitochondrial DNA transcription in tissues hence why altered melatonin leads to diseases of aging via mitochondrial heteroplasmy

When visual blur occurs it elongates the eye to cause myopia and leads to cataracts, macular degeneration, and aging increases in mitochondria because blue light destroys the central retinal pathways of melanopsin that link to melatonin. Melatonin controls all mitochondrial DNA transcription in tissues hence why altered melatonin leads to diseases of aging via mitochondrial heteroplasmy rates.

 

Daylight has a spectrum similar to that of a black body with a correlated color temperature of 6500 K (D65 viewing standard) or 5500 K (daylight-balanced photographic film standard).

BACK TO LEAVES

Almost every photon of sunlight that is red,  is captured by leaf’s chloroplasts.  This tells us the system likely was optimized to red frequencies as well,  because of the environmental thermodynamic givens tied to the frequencies of our sun’s light.  It turns out 42% of the light that falls to Earth is in the IR- A frequency light.  It appears when particulate matter is present in the atmosphere red light is still the favored frequency of things alive below on Earth.

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When light strikes an electron in a leaf the first stop the electron exciton makes is the antenna.  This is an assembly of hundreds of thousands of chlorophyll molecules.  When the chlorophyll is hit by the photon, one electron within chlorophyl becomes excited, it forms an exciton and it uses this energy to bounce through the antenna to the bridgeing area.  This region is composed of a complicated arrangement of more chlorophyll molecules.  Its like an area of of intertwined mazes of rope bridges that, if you can find the path through, will lead to the most important area, called the reaction center.

Once the exciton is at the reaction center, the exciton electron creates a permanently separated charge that can be stored by the leaf in water.  This stored energy is like a battery or capacitor.  In leafs, that energy is stored in water and can be used later to do physiologic work of photosynthesis.  There is one “quantum catch” in this process.  The reaction center is nearly impossible destination to get to on time!!!!  If it does not get there on time the energy stored is lost as heat.  We call this thermalized loss to the environment.

The exciton only has about 1 nanosecond to get across the chlorophyll bridges before heat is lost in the system.  So how does a leaf circumvent this maze?  It uses “quantum weirdness” to circumvent time using excitons.  In this way chlorophyll makes excitons to increase the ledge of the second law of thermodynamics.  Excitons are particles that don’t really ever exist in the classical sense of human understanding, and because of this, excitons never experience time as we do.  Because excitons do not experience time, the path to the reaction center is very easy to decipher before the sun’s energy is lost as heat.

Gregory Scholes is a botanist who wrote a 2010 paper in Nature that shocked the world.  When he removed the photosynthetic centers in leaves and shined laser light on them his experiments showed that leaves accomplish their goal by allowing the absorbed energy from the sun in the leaf to reside in two different places at once.  This quantum process has a name.  It is called quantum superposition.  It turns out RBC’s, the blood plasma, and the Q-cycle in mitochondria use the exact same process used in leaves to circumvent time in our mitochondrial respiratory proteins.

So, what aspect of quantum mechanics allows this effect to occur?  Quantum superposition appears bizarre and counterintuitive to our common sense, but its scribed into quantum mechanics of how reality is built.  The mathematics describes the position of the exciton only in terms of the “probabilities” of finding it in various different places.  The uncertainty principle and the second law of thermodynamics do exactly the same thing using statistical mechanics as their guide.   This means that both laws, are saying the exact same things, using different semantics, to get their point across.  It turns out in a leaf, under certain circumstances, an exciton from chlorophyll can occupy multiple positions at once in reality to transform sunlight into the entire food web on EARTH!

I think people forget that chloroplasts and mitochondria both were stolen bacteria at one point in life’s journey.  When you realize this it makes sense why both would use the “exciton mechanism” to allow energy flow from the sun to cells in wireless fashion.

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It also turns out that the remarkable efficiency of photosynthesis in algae where DHA first appeared 650 million years ago,  and their evolutionary descendants plants,  also deploy quantum superposition so that energy can simultaneously travel along all possible paths of the bridging maze of chlorophyll to reach the reaction center.  In fact, experiments have now shown that the exciton always gets to the reaction center before time expires.  In otherwords, it never fails in experiment.  This is why it is a basic LAW of nature and quantum mechanics.  Excitons can explore all paths to the reaction center, simultaneously,  without any time delay ever occurring.  This trick has also been found in bacteria like Chlorobium tedium.  Science knows bacteria where here before plants and eukaryotes.  It appears this quantum trick has been used by life from genesis 3.8 billion years ago.

It is so exciting because it clearly has now raised the spectre to modern cell biologists that animals, like humans, also can use the very same process in many cell systems.  Biology has yet to realize this, but the new field of quantum biology has found much evidence for the effects in many skin and blood systems.  I believe this process occurs in the skin’s melanin and eumelanin.  It also happens in carotenoids and in the cells suspended in blood.  Once the excitons are collected by these reaction centers the energy is transfered to water where protons tunneling transfers the signal at the speed of light to mitochondria at cytochrome 1.  Here it enters the Q-cycle to affect cytochrome c and the ATPase which are both red light chromophores and both tied to ATP production.  Water is also a red light chromophore.  I believe the phosphorus in our skin, proteins, and blood cells is critical to charge separating water into protons cables to transfer the energy and information from our surfaces to the mitochondria below.  This process occurs just as it does in leaves.  The difference is the distance and reaction center in animal cells are the Q-cycle and the the last two cytochromes.

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Modern technology’s semiconductors have not yet figured out yet how to do what plants or animals do in solar panels.  Solar photo electric conversion has a poor efficiency and the reason is simple.  Humans have not designed a chlorophyll, hemoglobin, DHA like molecule that can do what cells can do.  Technology is a slave to time while cells are not.  The current generation of photovoltaic panels only converts 20% of light falling into them.  The use of graphene is likely going to improve this situation.  If you have a lot of money there is new technology that boost the efficiency now to 35-40% but it will cost you 100,000 per square meter to get it.   The current efficiency in a plant’s leaves is between 90-99% depending upon season, incident light, and water content of the leaves.  I do want you to understand that this super efficiency in plants is not converting 90% of light power into stored chemical energy.  Only 5% of the energy is stored in chemical bonds, the rest is buried in water to build a strong exclusion zone in the leaf.  Water is critical to the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis.  This stored energy in water is the basis of life on Earth, because photosynthesis is basis of the entire food web and it is 100% linked to quantum weirdness.

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SUMMARY

Erwin Schrodinger told us in his 1944 book that life seemed somehow to break the second law of thermodynamics.  This flummoxed him, because he also said, despite life’s uncertainty, life is clearly stable or it could not exist.  That is reality.  Understanding reality means we have to accept “holes in reality” that things like excitons create.  Life is capable of reproducing offspring who are stable and they appear to transmit their moving subatomic particles in a reliable way to create a functional offspring.  In this sense, life appears to skirt the second law by using the subatomic wierdness in leafs and mitochondrial to create a perpetual motion machine for electrons and protons and it all driven by incident sunlight.  He also remarked in his book that in order for life to maintain its stability and sustain the living state without throwing its future into chaos it had to control the flow of heat from hot to cold and cold to hot by being much larger than its constituent parts of atoms and subatomic parts.  Life has to be built on a scale that would hide all these weird quantum effects, using the Quantum Zeno effect of our 5 main sensory receptors that feed data from environmental waves to our thalamus.

Schrodinger was fascinated by  the size of the first gene extracted from fruit fly’s in the 1940’s.  He guessed that a gene would be have to larger than biologists expected in the 1940’s to bury the quantum effects.  The biologists who found the fruit fly’s gene’s found them to contain only a couple of hundred of atoms in diameter and later those genes would be found not exceed a few million atoms in length.  Schrodinger was right in his guess,  but wrong in his reasoning. He knew that cells had to much bigger than the genes that controlled them to work on large enough scales to avoid the downsides of quantum theory.  However, it never occured to him, before he died, that the upside of quantum weirdness might actually be quite useful to life.  Photons hit semiconductive proteins to make “holes in reality” that create life using the most counterintuitive parts of quantum theory.

CITES

(1) Gregory D. Scholes, Graham R. Fleming, Alexandra Olaya-Castro and Rienk van Grondelle, “Lessons from nature about solar light harvesting.” Nature Chem., 2011, 3, 763–774.

(2) Jessica M. Anna, Gregory D. Scholes, and Rienk van Grondelle “A Little Coherence in Photosynthetic Light Harvesting.” Bioscience, 2014, 64, 14–25.

(3) Francesca Fassioli, Rayomond Dinshaw, Paul C. Arpin, and Gregory D. Scholes “Photosynthetic light harvesting: Excitons and coherence.” Royal Society: Interface, 2014, 11, 20130901.

(4) Gregory D. Scholes and Edward H. Sargent “Boosting Plant Biology.” Nature Mater., 2014, 13, 329–331.

(5) Elisabetta Collini, Cathy Y. Wong, Krystyna E. Wilk, Paul M. G. Curmi, Paul Brumer, and Gregory D. Scholes, “Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature.” Nature, 2010, 463, 644–648.

(6)Scientific Reports. 2016. H-theorem in quantum physics G.B. Lesovik, A.V.Lebedev, I.A.Sadovskyy, M.V. Suslov & V.M. Vinoku.

(7) Chanelle C. Jumper and Gregory D. Scholes “Life—Warm, wet and noisy? Comment on “Consciousness in the Universe: A Review of the ‘Orch OR’ Theory” by Hameroff and Penrose.” J. Physics of Life Reviews, 2014, 11, 85–86 .

(8) http://phys.org/news/2016-10-quantum-violate-law-thermodynamics.html

Comments

  1. Anonymous says:

    During sperms life would they be able to choose the best genes or the ones turned on versus the ones turned off to the baby or is the process random.

    • I think it is more the egg’s choice of which sperm gets in………why? When a mom lives a spectrally deficient life from the sun’s normal light their mitochondrial heteroplasmy rate in their germ cell line will increase its heteroplasmy rate because their respiratory proteins change their geometry and less energy is made as a result. This signal is something a sperm will react too. The egg will look to match epeigentically with a sperm that is optimal by using its bio-photon emission to guide the selction as a redox measure. So consider a germ cell mitochondrial disease like MS as an example: In MS this occurs in the mitochondria of AQA-4 gates of neurons of the cytochromes. Since all children inherit all their mtDNA from the maternal line exclusively……This means mom’s environment is critical to helping mitochondrial diseases like MS…..so this means the child comes into life with a high heteroplasmy state in their own mitochondria. That mitochondrial state is what we expect in old age and not new life. This is how MS is born by light choices into an infant in this brave new world we have.
      ^^^^^transgenerational epigenetics 101 there.
      And anyone who thinks food alone can fix a mitochondrial disease is pseudoscientific. Yep……..I said it.

  2. Point of confusion for me. In earlier readings it was stated that ATP could not be the energy currency of a cell because it failed the second law of thermodynamics. Reality #2 makes the case that it doesn’t have to satisfy this law being that a cell is an open system far from equillibrium. Please address this point for me. Thank you.

    • Modern cell biology believes that ATP drives all biochemical reactions. If it did the measurements have been made. We cannot and don’t make enough in a day to do it. Therefore enzymatic flux is still unexplained by the orthodoxy of Mitchell. This implies ATP real function is something different. That key is to unfold proteins so its side chains are exposed to water. Once exposed it can be made into EZ water. EZ water is a huge capacitor and is fully capable of driving enzymatic flux. Reality two shows you how the ledge is increased using excitons……..which use water to do their quantum magic. ATP is not part of this equation. Read this link. http://www.washington.edu/news/2016/12/01/for-the-first-time-scientists-catch-water-molecules-passing-the-proton-baton/ Now you may not know I wrote about this mechanism years ago in the blog. The Grotthuss mechanism was the first correct concept for the charge transport in electrolytes; and it still remains valid for the charge transport in water. This means it is critical to understand in cells. Biology is clueless about this mechanism. It allows for protons cable construction within an ionic fluid by using a current of protons that use a hopping mechanism. That hopping mechanism is referred to as quantum tunneling of protons. Quantum tunneling becomes more probable the smaller the mass of the cation is, and the proton is the lightest possible stable cation on Earth. Iodine and iodides turbocharge this ability by turning the sea of protons into an ionic plasma. This is why the thyroid gland, choroid plexus in the brain, and intestinal gut lining all concentrate iodine and iodides and H+. Your mitochondrial matrix DOES TOO! Do you think this is coincidence? I don’t. Water is most famous for forming hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and with other ions dissolved in it. A hydrogen bond consists of a hydrogen shared between two electronegative atoms like oxygen or sulfur. The compound that donates the hydrogen to the chemical reaction is the hydrogen donor, and the acceptor atoms is the hydrogen acceptor. Water is unique because it can be both an acceptor and a donor of hydrogen. It means water can be a switch hitter in many biochemical reactions. This is why water is the universal solvent on Earth. In fact, water can even donate two of it hydrogen’s if need be. This makes the water molecule take on the tetrahedral structure in its frozen form linked in a crystalline hexagonal array in crystal ice.I told you long ago hydrogen can also act as a group 7 halogen!!! It means it can gain electrons to become a pure non metal depending upon its environment. H+ acts like a metal liquid superconductor. This version is found in your mitochondrial matrix. When hydrogen does this in water when it is associated with iodine it forms an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are now receiving special attention in science, owing to their unique properties such as high ionic conductivity, non-volatility and non-flammability. This ability makes these fluids versatile alternatives to conventional solvent-based systems used to make batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors that hold large charges. They are also quite helpful as heat-transfer fluids to move infrared energies within a system. Do mitochondrial release IR light? Iodine addition to iodide-based ionic liquids leads to extraordinarily efficient charge transport with the Grotthuss mechanism, vastly exceeding that expected for a standard viscous system. Hydrogen and iodine form an ionic plasma within CSF of the human brain to protect DHA in synapses. Do you understand why seafood is critical now? The choroid plexus of the human brain is designed to add iodine to CSF to protect DHA from oxidation, both chemical and photonic. CSF, you will recall is an ultra-filtrate of blood plasma and is made up of 99.9% water.
      When iodine meets water that has been charged separated by IR light or by the hydrophilic proteins within the dura matter a massive amount of H+ is made in the CSF of the brain. H+ is equivalent to a proton. Using the Grotthuss mechanism , iodine is able to move protons closer together than we would normally expect, to alter their hydrogen bonding network to allow them to form superconducting proton cables that act like a positively charge electric current. This is tied to the like like likes idea in Pollack’s experiments. The mechanism allows for charges to be transported not by the movement of particles, by the breaking and reformation of chemical bonds. As water is charge separated by IR light or by hydrophilic substances, many excess H+ ions are liberated and excluded adjacent to the exclusion zone of water. Gerald Pollack’s experiments have shown this exquisitely. The excess protons can then diffuses through the hydrogen bond network of water molecules or other hydrogen-bonded liquids (iodized CSF) through the formation or cleavage of covalent bonds. Science is catching up!!!!

      • Now Ed…….it is very complex but here goes:Energetics in animals is based on the availability of reducing equivalents, specifically hydrogen (H+) which is replenished byconsumed as carbohydrates and fats, that react with oxygen to generate water and hydrogen via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

        The older evolutionary pathways makes far less energy than complex animals need for chronic living. Glucose is cleaved into pyruvate via glycolysis within the cytosol, reducing cytosolic NAD+ to NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine nucleotide). The pyruvate then enters the mitochondrion via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), resulting in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA (main electron provider for ECT), NADH + H+, and CO2. The acetyl-CoA then enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which strips the hydrogens from the organic acids, thereby generating NADH + H+.

        The new pathways (beta oxidation) are required for complex life because they provide a lot more electrons for tunneling. The more electrons the more life you live.

        Fatty acids are oxidized entirely within the mitochondrion by beta oxidation, generating mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, NADH + H+, and FADH2; the latter is contained in the electron transfer factor. Two electrons are transferred from NADH + H+ to NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) or from FADH2-containing enzymes such as the electron transfer factor dehydrogenase or succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) to reduce ubiquinone [coenzyme Q10 (CoQ)] to ubisemiquinone, and then to ubiquinol. This is where the Q-cycle becomes important. This is why the Time #21 blog explodes the biophysics here at this step. The electrons from ubiquinol are then transferred down the remainder of the electron transport chain (ETC) successively to complex III (bc1 complex), cytochrome c, complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)], and finally to oxygen to yield H2O. The water is critical in forming the main battery for light………the EZ. Cytochrome c oxidase is a heme containing protein.

        • This is the photosynthetic step that Wallace misses because he does not seem to know about Pollack’s work. Wallace still believes in chemiosmosis as the key energic step in a cell and I no longer do because of Ling and Pollack. Ling’s calculation that we need 5000 times more ATP than a cell can provide make it difficult to accept Mitchell’s theory that chemiosmosis explains a cell’s energy needs. In my view, they are no longer tenable given what Gerald Pollack has found in the EZ experiments on water. While, chemiosmosis is still an important step in cells (unfolding or proteins to bind water made in mitochondria)……the formation of water for the cytosol is much more critical for energy production. Not only that, EZ water can store light for years. Piccardi and Voeikov work discussed on pg. 107 Pollack’s water book is the missing data in Wallace’s bio-energetic paradigm.

          What Wallace still believes: The energy that is released as the electrons flow down the ETC is used to pump protons out across the mitochondrial inner membrane through complexes I, III, and IV. This creates a proton electrochemical gradient (ΔP = ΔΨ + ΔµH+), a capacitor that is acidic and positive in the intermembrane space and negative and alkaline on the matrix side. The matrix side is where the TCA cycle occurs. The alkaline pH here increases the EZ as Pollack has proven. The matrix is also very gel/colloid like which also completely fits Pollack’s experiments. Realize Pollack’s work calls the EZ a capacitor for UV/IR light that stores the potential energy of light for very long times. The EZ is DESTROYED by acid pH and protons are excluded in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. This is radically different than what Wallace currently believes and is why Wallace is so close yet so far. Wallace believes that the potential energy stored in ΔProton gradient is used for multiple purposes: (a) to import proteins and Ca2+ into the mitochondrion (I believe to regulate the 100 Hz requirement for beta oxidation (b) to generate heat, (to make the EZ and act as a heat sink for the Q -cycle) and (c) to synthesize ATP within the mitochondrial matrix (my view point is this is the doping mechanism for carbon based semiconduction). The energy to convert ADP + Pi to ATP; The ATP, in my view, is used to unfold proteins to allow water created by mitochondria to bond to it to make a large EZ from the heat liberated from the mitochondria. The ATP comes from the flow of protons through the ATP synthetase (complex V) back into the gel/colloid matrix. I think red light around the ATPase may allow for proton tunneling without need for transport back thru the ATPase at night using light emitted from our own semiconductors. Light tends to draw particles together when the light is intense and powerful and a laser fits that bill. The gel/colloid mitochondrial matrix ATP is then exchanged for cytosolic ADP by the inner-membrane adenine nucleotide translocators (ANT’s).

          • The efficiency with which dietary reducing equivalents are converted to ATP by OXPHOS is known as the coupling efficiency. I believe this is linked to mitochondrial haplotypes we inherit from our maternal line based upon location linear and the photosynthetic quantum yield of this location. SNP’s are post translation modification of the mitochondrial haplotype that allowed for migration from the East African rift. Wallace has not said this, as far as I can tell. Wallace believes that this is determined by the efficiency with which protons are pumped out of the matrix by complexes I, III, and IV and by the efficiency with which proton flux through complex V is converted to ATP. This brings uncoupling proteins into the equation. I also believe uncoupling proteins and SNP’s are what allowed for migrations. The uncoupler drug 2,4-dinitrophenol and the nDNA-encoded uncoupler proteins 1, 2, and 3 render the mitochondrial inner membrane “leaky” for protons. This lowers the voltage of the inner mitochondrial membrane and it should short out the Mitchell/Wallace’s version of a capacitor. I believe if he knew about how solar light forms a capacitor in water to make an EZ, I wonder how he would alter his view his current conception of bio-energics. His verison however still gets the overall story correct that energy deficits lead directly to disease propagation without any input from the nuclear genome. All we need to see for a disease to manifest is a change in energy flux from a mitochondria. This is the critical piece of what causes a disease phenotype to emerge from no where.

            When the proton gradient shorts out the system this short-circuits the mitochondrial inner-membrane capacitor; uncouples electron transport from ATP synthesis; and causes the ETC to run at its maximum rate (high voltage), thereby dissipating the energy as heat. My idea is that the high voltages created by uncoupling would lower semiconduction current in the Q cycle of the mitochondria and create a spectral shift in the light that excited the electrons to begin with. This would liberate massive amounts of heat for a mammal and this is where warm bloodednessevolved. The release of large amounts of red light/heat would immediately build a large EZ. Red light also stimulated the 4th cytochrome directly because it is a heme protein that responds to “some of the same frequencies” that hemoglobin does. The same thing is true for the ATPase. This means red light emission during uncoupling could still make ATP without a need for more electrons from foods. This would optically augment magnetic flux because the ATPase would become a perfect quantum rotatory engine. This has been proven already. The key is that semiconductive light emission would cease in the Q-cycle and this would affect sleep and memory function. This is how many neurodegenerative and neolithic diseases begin. It is also how eye diseases would manifest that lead to other diseases as the central retinal pathways are slowly destroyed.

        • Thank you! Much appreciated

  3. Nonchalant says:

    “100 years after Boltzman death, Vlatjo Vedral anaylzed Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle at the basis of quantum theory, and found that the Boltzman’s law is essentially another mathematical way of explaining the Boltzman law of thermodynamics.”
    Change that to the Second law of thermodynamics?

    “Most people are not aware that the basis of the entire food web on earth is due to photosynthesis.”
    Since everyone has been taught that plants are the basis of the food web, perhaps “quantum weirdness” would be better than “photosynthesis”?

    “The blue color of the sky is caused by Rayleigh scattering of the sunlight from the atmosphere, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light.”
    Should that be Tyndall scattering?

  4. How can you reverse menopause. I heard melatonin can be used to do the job which is ironic because of it’s role in sleep.
    Could transplanting the microbiome of a healthy person to someone ill with a fault in their genome , e.g. down syndrome, cure them as viruses can alter genetic code like using CRSPR without structural faults to the genome after.

  5. Nonchalant says:

    Observation affects quantum phenomena. Do we derive a benefit from observing quantum phenomena, at least the results of it? Eye contact has a huge social significance, both positive and negative. We can sometimes even realize that someone must be staring at us, somewhere. Might that be an observational, rather than psychic, feeling?

  6. Nonchalant says:

    Consciousness? That would be big.

  7. Jack, have you had a chance to share your knowledge and Pollack’s work with Wallace via email or meeting in person? I tried multiple times to get Gilbert Ling to engage in your work but I think he was very closed off to new thinking which I guess is understandable given his age.

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